Lab #7 Osmosis in Onion Cells Purpose To study osmosis using onion cells. ADVERTISEMENTS: The below mentioned article includes a list of five experiments in cell divisions. Worksheet PROCEDURE. It helps produce a clear image. the center of the microscopic slide (the drop of water will help flatten the membrane), Add a drop of iodine Conclusion The experiment showed that a plant cell and human cell have some similarities, they differ in shape size and structure. If so, which substances are positive? d. We cut the green parts off as we needed them for cooking. Test tube 1 is water Test tube 2 is derived from jello Test tube 3 is derived from egg whites Test tube 4 is derived from milk Test tube 5 is derived from a soft drink (coke) Do any appear to be positive? Observe the growth of roots in both the bulbs for a few days. Freezer Take a cold 95% ethanol solution from the freezer and add it to the test tube to make the ethanol layer above about 1 centimeter (cm). accidents. Although onions may not have as They were much paler than before and the water started to get a bit yucky – bacteria filled. From this point, it becomes easier to focus for clarity without any An onion is made up oflayers that are separated by a thin membrane. Conclusion - The concept of osmosis is clearly demonstrated by this experiment. 5. © microscopemaster.com. The onions did indeed grow back. Ultimately the protoplasm causes shrinkage and assumes spherical shape. The layers of an onion contain simple low power while looking from the side of the microscope rather than through the 1. in the bulb which is below ground and away from sunlight. Put the epidermis in the watch glass containing distilled water. Filter Salt protects the negative end of the DNA phosphate, allowing the tip to come closer so that DNA can precipitate from a cold alcohol solution. In turn this could be defined as water moving from a weak to a strong solution i.e. Dice the onion. Learn how your comment data is processed. If you are using a large metal pot for a water bath, remove the pot from the stove before placing the beaker inside—the procedure is safer if the pot is off the burner. Osmosis occurs when water moves from an area of a higher concentration (distilled water) to an area of a lower concentration (sucrose solution). Teacher Hint: You will not be able to see the individual organelles with a standard light microscope. The MicroscopeMaster website is for educational purposes only. How do antibiotics kill bacteria? Great onions You may want to wear an oven mitt to keep from scolding yourself. Thermometer After completing the experiment, the hypothesis proved to be true in two areas of the cell and not true in one area of the cell. Meiosis the slide and damage to the microscope objective lenses during observation, it's important that the optical tube be lowered to the point that the objective Dishwashing soap or shampoo Tweezers. 7. Observe under low power; change to high power and observe the onion skin. My husband placed the green onions in a glass and added some water. Background Information Osmosis is the movement of water through a … Take the onion out of the refrigerator and ensure the onion is chilled. a. Spray or coat the cutting board with vinegar and dice the onion. Mitosis 2. Water molecules are observed to have moved from the region where they are highly concentrated to the region where they have a low concentration through a semi-permeable membrane in the cells of the potato. 13. Plate. Determining Sugar Levels In Drinks Experiment, Wound healing activity of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and observe the onion membrane with different stains (methylene blue and The heat treatment softens the phospholipids in the cell membrane and denatures the DNAse enzyme, which if present would cut the DNA into small fragments so that it can not be taken. Spoon The final volunteer will cook his or her onion first. The bulb of an onion is Observing Onion Cells under a Microscope is a great introduction to the microscope. c. Put on a pair of airtight goggles such as swimming goggles. An onion is made up of Conclusion Define the following: isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solution. 3. For best results, ethanol should be as cold as possible. […] The purpose of this experiment was to be able to correctly identify the five stages of mitosis: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. was 29% in Prophase, 3% in Metaphase, 5% in Anaphase and 4% in Telophase. Better understand the process and stages of mitosis. Measuring cup. Solutions can be stored in the refrigerator for about a day before use in the following steps. How do animal cells and plant cells react in a hypotonic solution? slide without adding the stain to see the difference between a stained slide In area Y, 66% was spotted in interphase. In this experiment, onions are used, this is because the onion has a low starch content, which allows the DNA to be clearly visible. Then snap it backwards as shown in figure 2. Vacuoles are larger in plant cells, and result in turgor pressure when water is moved from the outside of the cell [low solute concentration] into a vacuole [high solute concentration]. 3. and a non-stained slide. osmosis in onion cell EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON ONIONEPIDERMAL CELLSINRODUCTION It follows that water will move from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration therefore, if a cellis placed in a hypertonic solution water will move from the cellinto the solution until the cellshrinks(1). All organisms are composed of cells (prokaryotic or eukaryotic). Unlike animal cells (such as cheek cells) the cell wall of an onion and other plants are made up of cellulose, which protects the cell and maintains its shape. Small granules may be observed inside the cells (within the, Unlike animal cells, students will also notice that the, onion cells without staining by Umberto Salvagnin at Flickr.com, onion cells stained with Methylene Blue by Umberto Salvagnin at Flickr.com, Check out other microscope experiment viewing. This should be done starting with Place the piece of onion skin on a slide. Touch a blotting paper on one side of the slide to drain excess Ethanol 95%. water soluble red pigment in red onion, anthocyanin, is stored in the vacuole. Experiment to study the effect of colchicine on the mitotic division of the root tip cells of onion: Requirements: Rooted bulbs of onion, small beakers, water, 1% aqueous solution of colchicine, acetocarmine, 45% acetic acid, coverslips, slides, burner, and microscope. Osmosis is responsible for the occurrence of plasmolysis. The DNA does not dissolve in ethanol. 5. Distilled water eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'microscopemaster_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_4',343,'0','0'])); **Note- In microscopy, wet When ethanol is added to the mixture, all components of the mixture, except DNA, stay in the solution while the DNA settles out into the ethanol layer. Table salt (NaCl) allows nucleic acids to precipitate from an ethanol solution because it protects the negative end of phosphate from DNA, causing the DNA strand to come closer together and fused. Dissolve the salt by stirring slowly to avoid foaming. Pour some distilled water into a watch glass. Using the medicine dropper, place one drop of water near the centre of the glass slide. Timer or clock. plants, students will not see any chloroplasts in their slides. 7. This phenomenon can be observed under the microscope in living cells. Table salt, either iodized or not iodized The solution is allowed to stand for 2-3 minutes then white DNA will settle into the ethanol layer. 1,100 ml of DNA source 2.1 ml table salt, or NaCl 3. an onion containing chloroplast, the little glucose that is produced from this Now, take two onion bulbs and place one on each jar, as shown in Figure. Hot plate with bath Plant cells and animal cells are two different types of eukaryotic cells. MicroscopeMaster.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites. Read more here. Required fields are marked *. Ice Cube. The solution is allowed to stand for 2-3 minutes then white DNA will settle into the ethanol layer. Cheek and Onion Cell Experiment The aim of this experiment will be to show that different cells have different structures and textures. down gently using a needle to remove air bubbles. Draw the cells of the onion skin under low power and high power. The specimen used in this experiment is the root of garlic where the meristematic cells are actively dividing. It can easily be obtained bypeeling it from any layer of the onion using tweezers. peeling it from any layer of the onion using tweezers. formed from modified leaves. Your email address will not be published. Put the 1000 mL beaker with the chopped onion and solution in a hot water bath at 55-60°C, as shown in Figure 1, below, for 10-12 minutes. For best results, ethanol should be as cold as possible. Pour 100 ml of solution in step 3 into the onion chopped onions that have been in the blender. eye piece. The material on this page is not medical advice and is not to be used for diagnosis or treatment. Liquid detergents cause cell membranes to break down and dissolve lipids and proteins from cells by damaging the bonds that bind the cell membranes together. It turned from colorless to blue after the addition of the Benedict's solution, but stayed blue after it was heated. Prepare your own specimens of onion root in which you can visualize all of the stages of mitosis. Real Lab Procedure. These cells appear red in colour Place the slide on the microscope stage under low power to The DNA does not dissolve in ethanol. plant cells have a more regular shape. Add the distilled water to the beaker to the final volume of 100 mL. Given that iodine tends to bind to starch, it stains the starch granules when Students can make another So, we tried again with a new batch of onions. 12. Scientific understanding changes over time. What conclusions can you make about the results of this experiment… Hold a piece of onion bulb scale so that the concave inner) surface faces you. When ethanol is added to the mixture, all components of the mixture, except DNA, stay in the solution while the DNA settles out into the ethanol layer. Place a cover slip over the onion skin. Osmosis is a special type of diffusion which involves the movement of water molecules through a partially permeable membrane. A plant cells structure should be rectangular with an even gap between all cells but turgid cells affect structure and make the cells look uneven within the overall structure. Experiment procedure 1. 11. Osmosis occurs when free water molecules move from a region of high solute concentration to a region of low solute concentration. MicroscopeMaster is not liable for your results or any personal issues resulting from performing the experiment. Prepare two water baths, one for temperature 55-60 ° C and another fill with ice cubes and water, about 4 ° C. 2. Break an onion slice … Allow the onion to sit in a pot of boiling water for a few minutes. lens is as close to the slide as possible. F). Gently lay a microscopic cover slip on the membrane and press it Cover the piece of skin with a drop of iodine. Dice the onion. -onion is largely available anywhere, and it's cheap.-the probe is prepared easy. Check out other microscope experiment viewing Cheek Cells, Cork Cells or Sugar Crystals as well and have fun looking at Leaf Structure under the Microscope! 2. solution on the onion membrane (or methylene blue). of the fact that the chloroplast necessary for photosynthesis is largely ADVERTISEMENTS: Experimental Preparation of Temporary Mounts of an Onion Peel ! Images are used with permission as required. the two come in to contact making them visible. eye piece. When plant cells are immersed in sodium chloride 5 % solution or concentrated salt solution, water moves through the cell membrane into the surrounding medium because the water concentration inside the cell is greater than that which is outside the cell. 200 ml of cold water 4. Whole white onion ** soaked in water overnight* Microscopes (2-3 students per scope) Microscope slides. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'microscopemaster_com-banner-1','ezslot_8',361,'0','0'])); Unlike animal cells, students will also notice that the accidents. Then remove the onion carefully and begin cutting it. b. membrane will be used to observe the onion cells. The formed DNA can be taken with a tooth or pipette or what stem of a crooked stirrer can take the DNA, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window). little starch molecules to be visible under the microscope. Conclusion. In conclusion, the mitosis process is a random process. 1000 mL bekaer glass. Blender and knife to cut onion. Add a drop of water at the center of the microscopic slide, Having pulled of a thin membrane from the onion layer, lay it at Peel off a leaf from half a piece of onion and using the forceps, pull out a piece of transparent onion peel (epidermis) from the leaf. In area X, 59% of the cells were spotted in Interphase. From this point, it becomes easier to focus for clarity without any Cooling the mixture in a water ice bath, about 4 ° C, as shown in the picture, below, for 5 minutes. parts of the cell. The hypothesis accurately predicted these results, not using exact numbers or days in the prediction. Take a few drops of safranin solution in a dropper and transfer this into another watch glass. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. 2. That Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane into a solution having a greater solute concentration. 4. 10. concentration gradient. While photosynthesis takes place in the leaves of process is converted in to starch (starch granules) and stored in the bulb. Procedure four was viewing an onion root tip (meristematic region) to examine the phases of mitosis. 8. to learn about the cell structure. In this process, press the onion DNA mixture against the side of the glass with the spoon back. For this experiment, the thinmembrane will be used to observe the onion cells. Aquaporins are found i… present in the leafy part of the onion, which is exposed to the sun and absent Both similarly consist of cell membranes and vacuoles, but only plant cells involve a cell wall for supporting structure. Measure the length of roots on day 1, 2 and 3. Apparatus and materials required: An onion, glass slide, watch glass, coverslip, forceps, needles, brush, blade, filter paper, safranin, glycerine, dropper, water, and a compound […] This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Although we can use all the DNA sources, but for this experiment it is better to use DNA sources from ingredients such as green beans, spinach leaves, strawberries, chicken livers, and bananas. When the process of filtering the onion mixture is attempted to keep the foam from entering the filtrate. What is the Function and Location of Glial Cells?, Vs Neurons, Endocytosis - Definition, 3 Types, Active or Passive?, Vs Exocytosis. Compounds achieve their function by destroying the microorganism or stopping their proliferation. made up of cellulose which maintains its shape. Be sure to take the utmost precaution and care when performing a microscope experiment. The seeds set to germinate in water saturated with sugar grew at a rate somewhere in-between that of water saturated with salt and tap water, for the last of the 17 seeds that had germinated grew by the 5th day of the experiment. Remove the onion DNA solution into the reaction tube approximately 5 ml. Moreover, to avoid breaking This water is called a mounting medium. Activity: Demonstration of growth of roots in onion Takes two glass jars and fill them with water. 3. Those three experiments showed that the way onion cells are dealing with the movement of water in and out of the cell is by osmosis. sugars (carbohydrates) some of which are stored as starch (starch granules). For entities to mature, grow, maintain tissues, repair and synthesize new cells, cell division is required. For this experiment, the thin Our first attempt was all right. Students have the opportunity to experiment Strain the mixture with a coffee or tea strainer. This is an easy and fun activity that will allow the student 12. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'microscopemaster_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_9',700,'0','0']));Privacy Policy by Hayley Anderson at MicroscopeMaster.comAll rights reserved 2010-2020, Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. 9. This is because they have a cell wall MicroscopeMaster is not liable for your results or any personal issues resulting from performing the experiment. iodine) and without the stain and observe the differences. On day 4, cut the root tips of the onion bulb in jar 2 by about 1cm. Do not use DNA from people who live or pets. Plasmolysis is the process during which cells lose water when placed in a hypertonic solution, a solution with greater concentration of solutes compared with the inside of a cell. Your email address will not be published. iodine/water solution. for examination. There are three st… Preface There. It can easily be obtained by Detergents cause cell membranes to break down by dissolving lipids and proteins from cells and disrupting bonds that hold the cell membranes together. 4. Chlorophyll and chloroplasts responsible for photosynthesis are therefore only present in the leafy part of the onion (above ground) and absent in the bulb (which grows below ground). observe. The results for this experiment showed the characteristic of each phase. much starch as potato and other plants, the stain (iodine) allows for the Test tube in albino wistar rats, Self-cleaning from Borosilicate Glass Waste, Utilization of the Butterfly Pea Flower Extract (Clitoria ternatea) as a Multi Functional and Economical Acid Base Indicator, Utilization of Red Dragon Fruit Skin (Hylocereus Costaricensis) as an Indicator of Formalin and Borax in Food, Insects of Pomegranate Cultivators (Eugina Aqua Burn. 6. Preparing the wet mount slide of onion skin. Cover slips. ... Leave a space for writing a conclusion describing what we able to see. Take a cold 95% ethanol solution from the freezer and add it to the test tube to make the ethanol layer above about 1 centimeter (cm). onion cell under the microscope, students will be able to learn the differences Cell division is of two types: 1. Timer or clock. Detergents serve to precipitate lipids and proteins from the solution. 11. ... 1M hydrochloric acid, 1 clove of garlic with roots, cold distilled water Procedure: 1-2 cm of root tips of growing garlic roots are cut off. low power while looking from the side of the microscope rather than through the LAB EXPERIMENT 4: Mitosis in Onion Root Tip Cells Objective After completing this exercise, you should be able to: 1. This step slows DNA damage. Continue cutting the onion using the following methods, waiting an hour between each trial. Although onions are Cut one large onion with a knife then blender and put in 1000 ml beaker glass. Eyedropper/pipette. During plasmolysis, the organelles inside of the cell shrink away from the cell wall, which results in severe water loss and leads to the collapse of the cell wall, which result in cell death. Again, you will be testing to see if temperature has affected the gas level that will come out of the onion. First described in 1838 by Robert Remak, an embryologist and neurologist, glial cells are cells of the nervous system other than neuronal cells. We can see the flaccid cells if the cell membrane is pulling away from the cell wall. Detergents then form complexes with lipids and proteins, causing them to precipitate the solution, Equipment and materials Remove a small piece of the inner surface of an onion skin. between animal and plant cells in addition to the function of the different Ethanol can be added to the solution b. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'microscopemaster_com-box-4','ezslot_7',261,'0','0']));This should be done starting with Cell membranes are composed of phospholipid bilayers. The conclusion that we should get by doing that experiment is that we observed all the stages of mitosis (if you are lucky to find to find them in you probe of course). In this experiment you will observe osmosis in red onion epidermal cells. The most noticeable item will … EXPERIMENT 1: What color changes did you observe when you added Benedict's solution to water and heated it? , as shown in Figure 2 are plants, students will not see any chloroplasts in their slides coat. Volume of 100 ml a strong solution i.e power while looking from the solution is allowed to stand 2-3... As water moving from a region of high solute concentration onions Blender and put in 1000 ml beaker glass length! Moving from a region of low solute concentration you will be used to the! Cells if the cell through the eye piece the cell membrane is pulling away from cell. Division is required complexes with lipids and proteins from cells and plant cells involve a cell wall mitt! Are plants, students will not see any chloroplasts in their slides the specimen used in process... Touch a blotting paper on one side of the onion skin under low power to observe the onion on! And vacuoles, but only plant cells and disrupting bonds that hold the cell membranes break... Could be defined as water moving from a region of low solute concentration as water moving from a to! Keep the foam from entering the filtrate not liable for your results or any personal issues resulting from performing experiment. Which materials or particles are internalized into the space around the cells were spotted Interphase... After it was heated membranes and vacuoles, but only plant cells and disrupting bonds that hold cell... How do animal cells are two different types of eukaryotic cells labeled diagrams 66 % was spotted in.... Is stored in the following steps specimens of onion bulb in jar 2 by about 1cm and care when a... Day 1, 2 and 3 ( L. ) Pers how to Obtain a membrane! And press it down gently using a needle to remove air bubbles or not iodized distilled water the! Conclusion - the concept of osmosis is the root tips of the onion experiment in water conclusion with the spoon.. With bath Ice Cube of boiling water for a few days or eukaryotic ) we to... Fun activity that will come out of the glass with the spoon back pulling away from side. 5 ml a region of high solute concentration microscopemaster is not to be to. Causes shrinkage and assumes spherical shape as shown in Figure process is a special type diffusion! Isotonic, hypertonic, and it 's cheap.-the probe is prepared easy layers that are by... Not iodized distilled water to the final volume of 100 ml a slide... In a dropper and transfer this into another watch glass predicted these results, ethanol should be cold... Defined as water moving from a region of high solute concentration to a strong i.e. Material on this page, its accuracy can not be able to: 1 of 100 ml of solution step! Different types of eukaryotic cells: mitosis in onion root in which can... Hypothesis accurately predicted these results, not using exact numbers or days the! The Blender concave inner ) surface faces you new batch of onions ] experiment 1: color. And a non-stained slide by this experiment, the mitosis process is a random process cell structure filtrate. Area X, 59 % of the stages of mitosis osmosis occurs when free molecules! Is formed from modified leaves, Wound healing activity of Cynodon dactylon ( L. ) Pers membranes and vacuoles but! Onion * * be sure to take the utmost precaution and care when performing a microscope is a type! The vacuole or days in the following methods, waiting an hour between trial! High power and high power and observe the onion are stored as starch ( starch granules ) with power. The watch glass containing distilled water Great onions Blender and knife to onion. Using onion cells water started to get a bit yucky – bacteria filled can you make about the results this. Different cells have different structures and textures and knife to cut onion approximately ml! Water to the final volunteer will cook his or her onion first onion DNA mixture against the of! Hour between each trial of filtering the onion using tweezers cell and human cell have some,... Water to the final volunteer will cook his or her onion first is pulling away from the membrane! About a day before use in the watch glass containing distilled water the. The onion cells Purpose to study osmosis using onion cells under a microscope experiment up of layers that separated! Will not be guaranteed actively dividing or eukaryotic ) the piece of onion skin add the distilled to! Prokaryotic or eukaryotic ) when you added Benedict 's solution, but stayed blue after the addition the. Not using exact numbers or days in the cells were spotted in.... Function by destroying the microorganism or stopping their proliferation are three st… water soluble red pigment in red onion anthocyanin! Be guaranteed to blue after the addition of the stages of mitosis of which are stored as starch starch. 1,100 ml of solution in step 3 into the onion using tweezers in Figure 2 layers are... Remove air bubbles in Telophase this phenomenon can be stored in the refrigerator for about a day use... 1,100 ml of solution in a pot of boiling water for a few minutes watch! Iodine tends to bind to starch, it stains the starch granules when the process of filtering onion... Of five experiments in cell divisions activity that will allow the onion tweezers... Husband placed the green onions in a pot of boiling water for a few drops of safranin solution step. Layer of onion root Tip cells Objective after completing this exercise, you should be able to if. D. LAB experiment 4: mitosis in onion Takes two glass jars and fill them with water liable for results! And a non-stained slide that will allow the onion experiment in water conclusion using tweezers onion using tweezers the epidermis in vacuole. [ … ] experiment 1: what color changes did you observe when you added Benedict 's solution water. To drain excess iodine/water solution have been in the Blender Temporary mount of onion!, hypertonic, and it 's cheap.-the probe is prepared easy ( starch granules ) and observe growth... Inner surface of an onion is made up of cellulose which maintains its shape and plant cells react a... Your results or any personal issues resulting from performing the experiment complexes with and. To see the flaccid cells if the cell structure make another slide without adding the stain to see the organelles! Although onions are plants, students will not be guaranteed for about a day use. In Figure 2: to prepare a stained slide and a non-stained slide the concept of osmosis is clearly by... Blue after it was heated care has been taken when preparing this page, its accuracy can be... To examine the phases of mitosis detergents then form complexes with lipids and proteins, causing them to the! In Metaphase, 5 % in Prophase, 3 % in Prophase, 3 % in Anaphase 4... Gently lay a microscopic cover slip on the microscope rather than through the invagination of the stages of mitosis be! Power and high power bulb of an onion Peel and to record observations and draw labeled diagrams:! The following: isotonic, hypertonic, and it 's cheap.-the probe is prepared easy, take two onion and. Granules ) root of garlic where the meristematic cells are actively dividing red pigment in red onion.! And human cell have some similarities, they differ in shape size and structure press it down gently using needle! Equipment and materials ethanol 95 % make about the cell membrane is pulling away from the of... Cutting board with vinegar and dice the onion and care when performing a microscope experiment learn about the cell is! Having a greater solute concentration the cells making the red onion cells under a microscope.! With vinegar and dice the onion carefully and begin cutting it as we them! Move from a weak to a region of low solute concentration either iodized or not distilled... In area X, 59 % of the inner surface of an onion is up... Step 3 into the onion using the medicine dropper, place one on each jar, as shown in onion experiment in water conclusion! Power to observe the onion out of the glass with the spoon back performing microscope. A partially permeable membrane to learn about the cell membrane will …:... 'S cheap.-the probe is prepared easy ) to examine the phases of mitosis them cooking... Cheek and onion cell experiment the aim of this experiment, the thinmembrane will be used for diagnosis or.... On this page is not liable for your results or any personal issues resulting from performing the showed... From a weak to a strong solution i.e contact making them visible, 3 % in Anaphase and onion experiment in water conclusion in..., you will be to show that different cells have different structures and textures, differ! On day 4, cut the root of garlic where the meristematic cells are actively dividing aim this! Be to show that different cells have different structures and textures hold the cell and... Both similarly consist of cell membranes together experiment… the bulb of an onion root in you. In onion Takes two glass jars and fill them with water day 1, 2 and.! Five experiments in cell divisions for entities to mature, grow, maintain tissues repair... Step 3 into the onion skin space for writing a conclusion describing what we able to 1! Will allow the onion bulb scale so that the concave inner ) surface you! Onion using tweezers goggles such as swimming goggles solution having a greater solute concentration slide to drain excess solution! Onion carefully and begin cutting it than before and the water started to get a bit yucky – bacteria.... To keep from scolding yourself remove air bubbles want to wear an mitt. Per scope ) microscope slides in Anaphase and 4 % in Anaphase and 4 in... If temperature has affected the gas level that will come out of the cell membrane on microscope.

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