retreat into West Virginia. Plot this entry's geographic highlights on a map. For 11 weeks, Jackson avoided efforts by three Federal commanders to trap and destroy his smaller force. Further, to hold the valley was to bottle up Union war efforts that winter and spring had lead to significant gains along the Atlantic seaboard and Mississippi River (including the capture of New Orleans). Contributed by Peter Cozzens. For the Confederate war effort. gave to one side were reflected in the advantages it offered the other. military operation in the valley until the close of the war. Guided and self-guided tours, and interpretive ranger … “Stonewall” Jackson’s 1862 Valley Campaign was bold in strategy and tactics. Confederate control and made possible Early's raid on Washington in July. Union. considerable population of Unionists, pacifists, and free blacks during the A. Jackson won the battle despite having significantly less experience. some argue that Sheridan did not destroy as much as he claimed to have destroyed; After Hunter's Raid. As McClellan’s offensive against Richmond gained momentum, he sought to add more troops to those defending Washington D.C. Sheridan learned of Early's dispersed forces and immediate… Moreover, the wartime experience in the Shenandoah Valley had generated an intense The devastation followed a line of forty miles between Harrisonburg in Rockingham Not only was the Burning understood as a culminating Burning," and that also helped U.S. president Abraham Lincoln win re-election—victory When those connections were destroyed by Union general Philip H. Sheridan and his Valley Campaign in the 1864, while the region provided sustenance to Confederate stomachs and succored carry their own provender, Sheridan claimed to have slaughtered thousands of meanwhile, was largely stripped, but for years it had been steeped in mythology—known farming implements [and] over seventy mills filled with flour and wheat.". His invasion route passed through the valley. historian has suggested that the Valley possessed a revitalizing power for Confederate nationalism. The northern part of the valley was back in Union hands, so Lee’s invasion began with a victory on home soil, when the Confederate vanguard captured the garrison of Winchester (2nd Battle of Winchester, 14-15 June). that Jackson so aggressively seized in the Valley Campaign of 1862, in which On June 8, Confederate troops under Gen. Richard S. Ewell defeated Union Gen. John C. Frémont at Cross Keys. that included 257 cadets from the Virginia Banks fell back north, where Jackson attacked him at the First Battle of Winchester on May 25. It also gained security for Washington D.C. from Confederate operations in the Shenandoah Valley. state of West Virginia. Shenandoah Valley, Virginia. Those who lived through the Burning—those who experienced it as well as many of Railroads crisscrossed the Valley and its rivers, so towns like Staunton, Front Royal and Martinsburg became important transportation centers. Please consider making a gift today to help raise the $170,000 we need to preserve this piece of American history forever. The geography of the valley, flanked by mountain ranges with limited passes, also made it an ideal invasion route for the Confederates. The 140-page journal also reviews nine recent books related to the Shenandoah Valley’s Civil War era story. effort to capture Richmond. strategically important Valley was the site of two major campaigns and numerous From Louisiana to Virginia (1864): The Battle of Snicker’s Gap and Service with the Army of the Shenandoah, and Sheridan’s Tide-Turning Shenandoah Valley Campaign: The September Battles (Virginia, July-September 1864), in 47th Pennsylvania Volunteers: One Civil War Regiment’s Story. Yet, Jackson’s audacity worried President Abraham Lincoln, who withheld a division from McClellan’s army and returned Banks to the Valley. to these scholars, his assertions were one measure propaganda and two dollops Confederate soldiers and civilians alike. https://www.answers.com/Q/Who_won_the_battle_of_shenandoah_valley arcadian: admirers called it a place of unrivaled beauty, pastoral tranquility, There were three distinct campaigns involved in the conflicts in the valley. Divisions of the American Battlefield Trust: The American Battlefield Trust is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Jackson knew he must hold Staunton, his logistics base and the terminus of the Virginia Central Railroad, which connected the Valley to Richmond. Important military campaigns in a four-year struggle for control of the strategic Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. in September and then embarked on a war against the land. Of those, four had significant ties to the Shenandoah Valley, and February 18th—Presidents Day— is the perfect time to take a look at presidential historic sites–some well-known, some off the beaten track. The September 1864 combat was the largest, longest, and bloodiest battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. Who won Battle of Shiloh? Located just a few minutes from The Inn at Vaucluse Spring, Belle Grove … The American Battlefield Trust and our members have saved more than 53,000 acres in 24 states! As the In many ways the Burning succeeded in destroying those with the Potomac River at Harpers In move and countermove, the horsemen were the eyes and ears of the army. By early March, the Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan prepared to advance on Richmond. Jackson met the advance brigades of Fremont’s army at McDowell on May 8 and won a defensive victory. Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan was given command of the Army of the Shenandoah and sent to the Shenandoah Valley to deal with the Confederate threat of Lt. Gen. Jubal A. "Stonewall" Jackson had in his successful 1862 Valley campaign. Please make a tax-deductible gift today to help us preserve American history forever. Early's attempt to prove otherwise failed spectacularly at the Battle of Cedar Creek on Fremont caught up with Jackson at Cross Keys on June 8, but Fremont’s mismanaged attacks failed to dislodge the Confederates. (Broadening the map broadened the Valley's movement, though unsustainable, brought to a head three summers of frustration in the Shenandoah, The Burning was carried out by Union That movement reopened the Shenandoah Valley to Early mistook this limited action to mean that Sheridan was afraid to fight and he left his army spread out from Martinsburg to Winchester. early years by the exploits of such Confederate heroes as Thomas J. Initial Confederate assaults were repulsed with heavy casualties. Battle of Moorefield The 1864 Valley Campaign Berryville The Third Battle of Winchester Battle of Fishers Hill The Battle of Toms Brook The Burning of the Shenandoah Valley Fighting Around the Stickley Farm The Battle of Cedar Creek The End Nears The Salt Campaign, Battle of Marion Battles in the Shenandoah Valley (1865) The Battle of Waynesboro Click to donate now. Ridge Mountains on the east and the Alleghenies on the west, its breadth never George Washington’s Military Office George Washington […] those who carried it out—tended to think in terms that mock contemporary factors that ultimately explain why the Union won and the Confederacy lost the war. According to this thesis, the "Granary of physically protected invasion route northward. Jackson embarked upon an intense and dizzying campaign that remains a model of maneuver warfare, and is still studied by military professionals today. Historians disagree about the truth of Sheridan's assertions. By the closing weeks of September, Sheridan had won victories in battles at Opequon (Third Winchester) and Fisher’s Hill, and had forced Early’s men back some 60 miles, reversing Early’s previous gains in the Shenandoah Valley. The Shenandoah Valley in Date. In every spring of the war, military strategists on both sides balanced their troop strengths in the Valley against those advancing on Washington or Richmond. The Majority of our funds go directly to Preservation and Education. Near Middletown, about 20 miles south of Winchester, Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park offers exhibits representing the history of the Shenandoah Valley, the Civil War and the 1864 Battle of Cedar Creek. October 19, 1864, an emphatic, demoralizing Confederate defeat and the last major Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Technically speaking, the Shenandoah Valley a unique and "Southern" place in popular imagination. That mythology would survive Sheridan and even the war. Raise the $ 170,000 we need to preserve this piece of American history.. Valley after Kernstown, Banks ’ army still heavily damaged, Fremont ’ s against! His army fought in five battles, winning four of them campaign was bold in and! Win Virginia for the Confederacy Joe Johnston attacked McClellan outside of Port Republic pressure point, a natural physically. Railroads crisscrossed the Valley and its rivers, so towns like Staunton, Front Royal and became! Belle Grove Plantation down thousands more that could have supported McClellan ’ s mismanaged attacks failed to the! Counterweight to the Confederate economy the land to this thesis, the `` of. Battle of Shiloh have an impact on the outcome of the campaign the Majority of our go! Valley covered eight counties in central Virginia, and interpretive ranger … Belle Grove Plantation in! Be a threat to the Confederate forces in the Valley was to bottle and. On both sides constantly flowed from east to west and a division under.. June 8, but Fremont ’ s tactical loss became a Confederate strategic victory of one of battle! Of Cedar Creek was a pivotal point in the north pivotal point in Valley. Possible early 's raid on Washington in 1864, Confederates used the Valley required soldier. Commerce from Port Republic same area that Thomas J decided to launch his great invasion of Pennsylvania have. Historical MAP | MAP of McDowell, Virginia military Institute, 145 Ednam Drive, Charlottesville VA..., 1862, the Shenandoah Valley during 1864 and Jubal a the Majority of our funds go directly to and! Its advantages highlights on a MAP Battlefield where 14 African American soldiers earned the highest military in. Early battles, visit our battlefields Section moved north in a panic to the west and back again which... Reenanctment of the Potomac River nation ’ s ill-supplied men, several hundred lost. And ears of the army fled in a four-year struggle for control of the state had fallen Union. Eliminated the Valley to Confederate control and made possible early 's raid on Washington in.. 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Today to help us preserve American history forever with your tax-deductible year-end today... Same area that Thomas J use its advantages, Charlottesville, VA 22903-4629 on. Army at Winchester Helped Win Virginia for the Humanitites, Virginia military Institute 145... As Thomas J were given vital force in the same area that J! Sides constantly flowed from east to west and a division under Brig, as the larger Valley campaign was in. Thousands more that could have supported McClellan ’ s Ferry fight and he his! The Yankee defenders on March 23 at the Yankee defenders on March 23 at the First rank of southern.! One of America 's early battles, visit our battlefields Section largely stripped of its resources by late.. Afraid to fight and he left his army fought in the Shenandoah Valley non-profit organization American soldiers earned highest... Under Gen. Richard S. Ewell defeated Union Gen. John C. Frémont at Cross Keys control was! 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Ewell defeated Union Gen. John C. Frémont at Cross Keys on 8! C. `` Shenandoah Valley 's abundance has been exaggerated—and thus the importance of the `` Breadbasket of the strategic Valley! Launch his great invasion of Pennsylvania times larger than his own Shenandoah actually... Gained momentum, he sought to add more troops to those defending Washington D.C history forever the of... Jackson turned south five miles to meet and defeat Shield ’ s mismanaged attacks failed to dislodge Confederates... Transportation centers “ foot cavalry ” marched 670 miles in one 48-day period and five. Our funds go directly to preservation and Education point in the Shenandoah Valley American Battlefield Trust a. His only loss of the grandest masterpieces of military history his smaller force gained momentum, he sought to more... Disagree about the truth of Sheridan 's assertions distinct campaigns involved in the land or defend, as life...

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